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كتاب Booklet Poultry Diseases لليس له مؤلف

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المؤلف : ليس له مؤلف
التصنيف : كتب الطب
سنة النشر : غير محدد
عدد الصفحات : غير محدد
عن الكتاب : IMPORTANT POULTRY DISEASES 5 4 Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis 10 Avain Influenza 12 Avian Metapneumovirus Rhinotracheitis/TRT 14 Infectious Bronchitis 16 Infectious Coryza 20 Infectious Laryngotracheitis 22 Mycoplasma Gallisepticum “CRD” 27 Mycoplasma Synoviae 30 Newcastle Disease 32 Neoplastic Diseases Lymphoid Leucosis 36 Marek’s disease 38 Avian Adeno virus Diseases Egg Drop Syndrome ‘76 44 Inclusion Body Hepatitis 48 Miscellaneous Viral Diseases Avian Encephalomyelitis 54 Chicken Anaemia Virus 58 Fowl Pox 60 Infectious Bursal Disease 62 Malabsorbtion Syndrome/ Runting Stunting Syndrome 66 Reo virus infections 68 Contents Contents Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Colibacilosis 72 Fowl Cholera 76 Infectious Synovitis 78 Necrotic Enteritis 80 Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (OR) 84 Pullorum disease/Fowl Typhoid 86 Parasitic Diseases Blackhead 90 Coccidiosis 92 Red Mite 96 Worms 98 Deficiency Diseases Riboflavin 102 VitaminD3 103 VitaminE 104 Food Safety in Poultry Introduction 106 Salmonellosis 106 Campylobacter 111 Diagnostics and Sampling 115 7 6 Foreword Foreword Foreword The first edition of Intervet’s “Important Poultry Diseases” was in 1972 and still it is one of our most wanted publications. An easy to handle and practical booklet for basic understanding of the most important poultry diseases for people working in poultry management. This is the fifth updated version printed in 2013 with new additional information based on the new developments in Poultry Diseases and progress of the MSD Animal Health Poultry Research in developing additional new products. MSD Animal Health Research is committed to co-operate with the poultry industry worldwide to develop and support solutions to control poultry diseases. MSD Animal Health is more than vaccines alone. For detailed information of any of our products please contact the local MSD Animal Health representative or Intervet International BV– part of MSD Animal Health. Intervet International BV Boxmeer- Holland, P.O. Box 31 5830 AA Boxmeer, The Netherlands Phone +31 485587600 - Fax +31 485577333 E-mail [email protected] - www.merck.com 9 8 Infectious Respiratory diseases Infectious Respiratory diseases Infectious Respiratory diseases t"TQFSHJMMPTJT t"WBJO*OnVFO[B t"WJBONFUBQOFVNPWJSVT3IJOPUSBDIFJUJT535 t*OGFDUJPVT#SPODIJUJT t*OGFDUJPVT$PSZ[B t*OGFDUJPVT-BSZOHPUSBDIFJUJT t.ZDPQMBTNB(BMMJTFQUJDVNw$3%w t.ZDPQMBTNB4ZOPWJBF t/FXDBTUMF%JTFBTF 11 10 Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis Treatment and control There no specific treatment for infected birds. The best is to remove and destroy a ! ected birds. Strict hygiene in breeder (hatching eggs) and hatchery management is necessary. Choice and quality of litter is also important to prevent that spore bearing wood shavings or straw are used. Hatchery control with anti-fungal disinfectant may be critical to cleaning and disinfection procedures to control fungus infection. Gross lesions of the lungs Aspergillosis (Fungal Pneumonia) Cause The principal fungus causing Aspergillosis in poultry is Aspergillus fumigatus . Transmission Transmission is by inhalation of fungus spores from contaminated litter (e.g. wood shavings, straw) or contaminated feed. Hatcheries may also contribute to infection of chicks. Species a ! ected Young chickens are very susceptible. Older chickens are more resistant to infection. Turkey poults, pheasants, quails, ducklings, and goslings may also become infected. Clinical signs Infected chickens are depressed and thirsty. Gasping and rapid breathing can be observed. Mortality is variable, from 5 to 50 %. Gross lesions involve the lungs and airsacs primarily. Yellow-white pin head sized lesions can be found. Sometimes all body cavities are filled with small yellow-green granular fungus growth. Diagnosis The presence of Aspergillus fumigatus can be identified microscopically or sometimes even with the naked eye in the air passages of the lungs, in the airsacs or in lesions of the abdominal cavity. Aspergillosis can be confirmed by isolation and identification of the fungus from lesions. 13 12 Infectious Respiratory diseases Avian Influenza Infectious Respiratory diseases Avian Influenza Avian Influenza (AI) Cause Avian Influenza is caused by an Orthomyxovirus ; there are several serotypes. Currently we know there are 16 H- types and 9 N-types and they can show up in all kinds of combinations. For poultry the most important ones are H5, H7 and H9. Pathogenicity varies with the strains HPAI and LPAI (high or low pathogenic AI). Transmission AI virus is excreted from nares, mouth, conjunctiva and cloaca. Airborne virus particles from the respiratory tract, droppings, and people carrying virus on their clothing and equipment are the main routes of transmission. Migratory water fowl and other wild birds infected with AI virus may be a source of infection. Species a ! ected Avian Influenza viruses have been shown to naturally infect a wide variety of wild and domestic birds. In poultry production main problems are in chickens, turkeys and ducks. Clinical signs Clinical signs will vary, depending on the pathogenicity (HPAI and LPAI) of AI virus involved and other factors as host species, sex, concurrent infections, acquired immunity and environmental factors. LPAI shows generally mild symptoms: respiratory coughing sneezing, wet eyes, nasal discharge depression, lethargy limited reduction of feed intake and limited drop in egg production; low mortality rate. HPAI shows fast onset with increased mortality even before clinical signs are seen, depression, drop in feed and water intake, severe drop in egg production and mortality can vary between 50-90%. Diagnosis Clinical signs are indicative for AI; final confirmation by laboratory testing: - Direct detection of AI proteins or Nucleic acids(RNA) using PCR. - Virus isolation from infected organs, tracheal or cloacal swabs. - Serology from blood samples after infection and for routine monitoring showing specific AI antibodies. Treatment There is no treatment for Avian Influenza. Antibiotics will help to control secondary bacterial infections. Prevention and control In many countries AI is a notifiable disease with specific local regulations on its control. In AI free areas the disease(LPAI and HPAI) is controlled by monitoring and stamping out. In case of LPAI infected areas countries can decide to allow vaccination only for LPAI. In case of endemic HPAI and/or LPAI vaccination might be allowed. Vaccination is generally done with inactivated AI vaccines based on the strain H-type causing the outbreaks ............... .
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نبذة عن كتاب Booklet Poultry Diseases

كتاب Booklet Poultry Diseases

IMPORTANT POULTRY DISEASES 5 4 Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis 10 Avain Influenza 12 Avian Metapneumovirus Rhinotracheitis/TRT 14 Infectious Bronchitis 16 Infectious Coryza 20 Infectious Laryngotracheitis 22 Mycoplasma Gallisepticum “CRD” 27 Mycoplasma Synoviae 30 Newcastle Disease 32 Neoplastic Diseases Lymphoid Leucosis 36 Marek’s disease 38 Avian Adeno virus Diseases Egg Drop Syndrome ‘76 44 Inclusion Body Hepatitis 48 Miscellaneous Viral Diseases Avian Encephalomyelitis 54 Chicken Anaemia Virus 58 Fowl Pox 60 Infectious Bursal Disease 62 Malabsorbtion Syndrome/ Runting Stunting Syndrome 66 Reo virus infections 68 Contents Contents Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Colibacilosis 72 Fowl Cholera 76 Infectious Synovitis 78 Necrotic Enteritis 80 Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (OR) 84 Pullorum disease/Fowl Typhoid 86 Parasitic Diseases Blackhead 90 Coccidiosis 92 Red Mite 96 Worms 98 Deficiency Diseases Riboflavin 102 VitaminD3 103 VitaminE 104 Food Safety in Poultry Introduction 106 Salmonellosis 106 Campylobacter 111 Diagnostics and Sampling 115 7 6 Foreword Foreword Foreword The first edition of Intervet’s “Important Poultry Diseases” was in 1972 and still it is one of our most wanted publications. An easy to handle and practical booklet for basic understanding of the most important poultry diseases for people working in poultry management. This is the fifth updated version printed in 2013 with new additional information based on the new developments in Poultry Diseases and progress of the MSD Animal Health Poultry Research in developing additional new products. MSD Animal Health Research is committed to co-operate with the poultry industry worldwide to develop and support solutions to control poultry diseases. MSD Animal Health is more than vaccines alone. For detailed information of any of our products please contact the local MSD Animal Health representative or Intervet International BV– part of MSD Animal Health. Intervet International BV Boxmeer- Holland, P.O. Box 31 5830 AA Boxmeer, The Netherlands Phone +31 485587600 - Fax +31 485577333 E-mail [email protected] - www.merck.com 9 8 Infectious Respiratory diseases Infectious Respiratory diseases Infectious Respiratory diseases t"TQFSHJMMPTJT t"WBJO*OnVFO[B t"WJBONFUBQOFVNPWJSVT3IJOPUSBDIFJUJT535 t*OGFDUJPVT#SPODIJUJT t*OGFDUJPVT$PSZ[B t*OGFDUJPVT-BSZOHPUSBDIFJUJT t.ZDPQMBTNB(BMMJTFQUJDVNw$3%w t.ZDPQMBTNB4ZOPWJBF t/FXDBTUMF%JTFBTF 11 10 Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis Infectious Respiratory diseases Aspergillosis Treatment and control There no specific treatment for infected birds. The best is to remove and destroy a ! ected birds. Strict hygiene in breeder (hatching eggs) and hatchery management is necessary. Choice and quality of litter is also important to prevent that spore bearing wood shavings or straw are used. Hatchery control with anti-fungal disinfectant may be critical to cleaning and disinfection procedures to control fungus infection. Gross lesions of the lungs Aspergillosis (Fungal Pneumonia) Cause The principal fungus causing Aspergillosis in poultry is Aspergillus fumigatus . Transmission Transmission is by inhalation of fungus spores from contaminated litter (e.g. wood shavings, straw) or contaminated feed. Hatcheries may also contribute to infection of chicks. Species a ! ected Young chickens are very susceptible. Older chickens are more resistant to infection. Turkey poults, pheasants, quails, ducklings, and goslings may also become infected. Clinical signs Infected chickens are depressed and thirsty. Gasping and rapid breathing can be observed. Mortality is variable, from 5 to 50 %. Gross lesions involve the lungs and airsacs primarily. Yellow-white pin head sized lesions can be found. Sometimes all body cavities are filled with small yellow-green granular fungus growth. Diagnosis The presence of Aspergillus fumigatus can be identified microscopically or sometimes even with the naked eye in the air passages of the lungs, in the airsacs or in lesions of the abdominal cavity. Aspergillosis can be confirmed by isolation and identification of the fungus from lesions. 13 12 Infectious Respiratory diseases Avian Influenza Infectious Respiratory diseases Avian Influenza Avian Influenza (AI) Cause Avian Influenza is caused by an Orthomyxovirus ; there are several serotypes. Currently we know there are 16 H- types and 9 N-types and they can show up in all kinds of combinations. For poultry the most important ones are H5, H7 and H9. Pathogenicity varies with the strains HPAI and LPAI (high or low pathogenic AI). Transmission AI virus is excreted from nares, mouth, conjunctiva and cloaca. Airborne virus particles from the respiratory tract, droppings, and people carrying virus on their clothing and equipment are the main routes of transmission. Migratory water fowl and other wild birds infected with AI virus may be a source of infection. Species a ! ected Avian Influenza viruses have been shown to naturally infect a wide variety of wild and domestic birds. In poultry production main problems are in chickens, turkeys and ducks. Clinical signs Clinical signs will vary, depending on the pathogenicity (HPAI and LPAI) of AI virus involved and other factors as host species, sex, concurrent infections, acquired immunity and environmental factors. LPAI shows generally mild symptoms: respiratory coughing sneezing, wet eyes, nasal discharge depression, lethargy limited reduction of feed intake and limited drop in egg production; low mortality rate. HPAI shows fast onset with increased mortality even before clinical signs are seen, depression, drop in feed and water intake, severe drop in egg production and mortality can vary between 50-90%. Diagnosis Clinical signs are indicative for AI; final confirmation by laboratory testing: - Direct detection of AI proteins or Nucleic acids(RNA) using PCR. - Virus isolation from infected organs, tracheal or cloacal swabs. - Serology from blood samples after infection and for routine monitoring showing specific AI antibodies. Treatment There is no treatment for Avian Influenza. Antibiotics will help to control secondary bacterial infections. Prevention and control In many countries AI is a notifiable disease with specific local regulations on its control. In AI free areas the disease(LPAI and HPAI) is controlled by monitoring and stamping out. In case of LPAI infected areas countries can decide to allow vaccination only for LPAI. In case of endemic HPAI and/or LPAI vaccination might be allowed. Vaccination is generally done with inactivated AI vaccines based on the strain H-type causing the outbreaks ............... .


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